Covenant

COVENANT -- An agreement established between two parties

A covenant is an agreement or contract that God initiates with humanity; some have conditions, some do not. For example, God's covenant with Adam before the fall required obedience to his commands, with the prospect of either life or death; the covenant with Abraham contained no conditions, but only promises of blessing to him and his descendants.

These promises pertain to us as well, since those who love the Lord are children of Abraham through faith in Christ.

  1. Related studies
    1. COVENANT is a main theme of:
      1. Genesis -- Gen. 17:4
      2. Exodus -- Ex. 24:3
      3. 2 Samuel -- 2 Sam. 23:5
    2. RENEWAL is a theme of:
      1. Deuteronomy -- Deut. 29:12
      2. Joshua -- Josh. 24:25
      3. Malachi -- Mal 3:7
  2. Covenants between people
    1. Examples of human covenants
      1. Between Isaac and Abimelech -- Gen. 26:26-31
      2. Between Jacob and Laban -- Gen. 31:43-54
      3. Between Joshua and the Gibeonites -- Josh. 9:3-15
      4. Between David and Jonathan -- 1 Sam. 18:3
      5. Between David and Abner -- 2 Sam. 3:12-16
      6. Between Jehoiada and the guards -- 2 Kings 11:4-12
      7. Between Joash and the people -- 2 Kings 11:17
      8. Between Zedekiah and the people -- Jer. 34:8-10
    2. Elements in a covenant
      1. Promises -- 1 Sam. 20:14-17
      2. Stipulations -- 2 Sam. 3:13
      3. Oaths -- Gen. 31:53
      4. Responsibilities -- 2 Kings 12:8
      5. Witnesses -- Gen. 31:45-48; Isa. 20:42
      6. Implied threats -- Gen. 31:53
  3. Covenants between God and people
    1. Examples of such covenants
      1. With Adam before the fall -- Gen. 2:15-17
      2. With Adam after the fall -- Gen. 3:14-19
      3. With Noah -- Gen. 9:1-19
      4. With Abram -- Gen. 12:1-3
      5. With Israel at Sinai -- Ex. 19:5-8
      6. With Israel before entering Palestine -- Deut. 29-30
      7. With Israel in the promised land -- Josh. 24:1-27
      8. With David -- 2 Sam. 7:14-17
      9. With the returned exiles .Neh. 9:38-10:39
      10. Future covenant of peace -- Ezek. 34:25-31
      11. The new covenant -- Jer. 31:33-34 13
    2. The covenants with Adam
      1. First covenant (before the fall)
        1. Requirement was obedience -- Gen. 2:16-17
        2. Promise was life -- Gen. 3:22
        3. Penalty was death -- Gen. 2:17
        4. Adam and Eve disobeyed -- Gen. 3:1-6
        5. God pronounced punishment -- Gen. 3:14-19
        6. Jesus perfectly obeyed God's will -- Jn 6:38; Rom. 5:18-19; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15
        7. The Lord's death reversed Adam's -- Rom. 5:1,5-19
      2. Second covenant (after the fall)
        1. Conflict between Satan and people -- Gen. 3:15
        2. God promised Satan's defeat -- Gen. 3:15
        3. Fulfilled in Satan's defeat by Jesus -- Rom. 16:20; Heb. 2:14; 1 Jn. 3:8
    3. The covenant with Abraham
      1. Where is it mentioned?
        1. First mentioned to Abram -- Gen. 12:2-3
        2. Repeated to Abraham -- Gen. 22:17-18
        3. Repeated to Isaac -- Gen. 26:3-5
        4. Repeated to Jacob -- Gen. 28:13-15
        5. Repeated to Moses -- Ex. 6:2-4
        6. Celebrated by the psalmists -- Ps. 105:7-11
        7. Acknowledged by the returned exiles -- Neh. 9:7-8
      2. What are its elements?
        1. Several promises -- Gen. 12:2-3
        2. No conditions attached -- Gen. 12:2-3
        3. Faith came later -- Gen. 15:6
        4. Law of circumcision followed faith -- Gen. 17:3-14
      3. How was it fulfilled in Christ?
        1. John the Baptist began fulfillment -- Lk. 1:72-75
        2. Peter preached its fulfillment -- Acts 3:25
        3. Its center is faith in Christ -- Gal. 3:6-9
        4. The law follows faith -- Rom. 4:9-13
    4. The covenant of the law made at Mount Sinai
      1. Where is it mentioned?
        1. First made at Mount Sinai -- Ex. 19:3-6
        2. Confirmed by the Israelites -- Ex. 24:1-8
        3. Renewed at the border of Canaan -- Dt. 29
        4. Renewed at Mount Ebal -- Josh. 8:30-35
        5. Renewed at Shechem -- Josh. 24:1-27
        6. Rejected by the ten tribes -- 2 Kings 17:7-20
        7. Renewed under Josiah -- 2 Chr. 34:29-33
        8. Broken by the nation of Judah -- Jer. 3l:32
        9. Renewed by the returned exiles -- Neh. 9:38-10:39
      2. What are its elements?
        1. Centered on the law of God -- Ex. 34:27-28; Dt. 4:13-14
        2. Required obedience -- Ex. 24:7; 34:10-11; Dt. 29:9
        3. Linked with blessings and curses -- Dt. 28; Josh. 8:34-35
        4. Did not annul covenant with Abraham -- Gal. 3:15-17
        5. Pointed out human sin -- Rom. 3:20, 23; Gal. 3:19
        6. Increased sin -- Rom. 5:20
        7. Prepared for the coming of Christ -- Gal. 3:23-25
      3. How was it fulfilled in Christ?
        1. He fulfilled the law -- Mt. 5:17
        2. He perfectly obeyed the law -- Rom. 5:18-19; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4.15
        3. He died the death of a curse -- Gal. 3:10-13
        4. His death removed the curse from us -- Gal. 3:13-14
    5. The covenant with David
      1. Where is it mentioned?
        1. First promised to David -- 2 Sam. 7:4-17
        2. Celebrated by David -- 2 Sam. 23:5
        3. Mentioned to Solomon -- 1 Kings 2:2-4
        4. Celebrated by Solomon -- 1 Kings 8:22-26
        5. Mentioned to Jeroboam -- 1 Kings 11:34-36
        6. Reaffirmed during Jehoram's reign -- 2 Kings 8:19
        7. Celebrated by psalmists -- Ps. 89:3; 132:10-12
        8. Reaffirmed by Isaiah -- Isa. 9:6-7
        9. Reaffirmed by Ezekiel -- Ezek. 37:24-25
      2. What are its elements?
        1. Several promises -- 2 Sam. 7:9-16
        2. No conditions attached -- 2 Sam. 7:15-16
      3. How was it fulfilled in Christ?
        1. Mentioned by Gabriel to Mary -- Lk. 1:32-33
        2. Preached by Paul -- Acts 13:22-23, 34
        3. Hinted at in book of Hebrews -- Heb. 1:8
        4. Jesus is the Son of David -- Mt. 1:1; Rom. 1:3
        5. Jesus is a king who rules -- Jn. 18:33-37; 1 Cor. 15:24-25; Rev. 19:16
    6. The new covenant
      1. Where is it promised?
        1. Through Jeremiah --  Jer. 31:33-34; 32:38-40
        2. Through Ezekiel -- Ezek. 16:60-62; 34:25-31
        3. Through Hosea -- Hosea 2:18-20
      2. What are its elements?
        1. Several promises -- Jer. 31:33-34
        2. No conditions attached -- Jer. 31:33-34
      3. How was it fulfilled in Christ?
        1. Asserted by Christ in the upper room -- Lk. 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25
        2. Mentioned by Paul -- 2 Cor. 3:6
        3. Explained in book of Hebrews -- Heb. 8:6-13; 9:15-28; 10:11-18; 12:22-24
    7. God's relationship to his covenants
      1. He establishes his covenant -- Gen. 6:18; 17:7; Ex. 6:4; Ezek. 16:60-62
      2. He is faithful to his covenant -- Dt. 7:9; 1 Kings 8:23; Neh. 9:32; Dan. 9:4
      3. He remembers his covenant -- Ex. 2:24; Ps. 105:8; 111:5; Ezek. 16:60; Lk. 1:72